Submitted/under review/revision

Baggio, S., Sapin, M., Studer, J., Gmel, G., & Cramer, A. O. J. (under review). Comorbidity of alcohol and cannabis use disorders among simultaneous alcohol and cannabis users. Insights from the network perspective.

Blanken, T. F., Deserno, M., Dalege, J., Borsboom, D., Blanken, P., Kerkhof, G. A., & Cramer, A. O. J. (under review). Psychopathology in its full complexity: Overlapping communities in symptom networks.

Eijlander, M. D., van Rooij, M. M. W. J., Bockting, C. L. H., Schiepek, G. K., Aas, B. G., Strunk, G., Aichhorn, W., Cramer, A. O. J., & Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A. (under review). Can Networks Elucidate Depressive Persistence?

Epskamp, S., Fried, E. I., van Borkulo, C. D., Robinaugh, D. J., Marsman, M., Dalege, J., Rhemtulla, M., & Cramer, A. O. J. (under review). The Right Answer to the Wrong Question: Utility of Fixed-Margin Sampling in Network Psychometrics. Multivariate Behavior Research. Preprint.

Rhemtulla, M., van Bork, R., & Cramer, A. O. J. (revision submitted). Cross-lagged network models. Multivariate Behavior Research. Preprint.

See, A. Y., Klimstra, T. A., Cramer, A. O. J., & Denissen, J. A. A. (under review). Uncovering the structure of personality pathology in adolescence: Complementing factor analyses with the network approach for the 100-item Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-100).

Siegle, G. J., Cramer, A. O. J., van Eck, N. J., Spinhoven, P., Hollon, S. D., Ormel, J., & Bockting, C. L. H. (under review). Where are the leaks from theory to clinical practice (and back) in addressing the depression epidemic? An empirical graph-theoretic approach.

Spinhoven, P.,. Klein, N., Cramer, A. O. J., Siegle, G., Cuijpers, P., Ormel, J., & Bockting, C. L. H. (revise and resubmit). The effects of cognitive-behavior therapy for depression on repetitive negative thinking: A meta-analysis.

Accepted/in press

Borsboom, D., Cramer, A. O. J., & Kalis, A. (in press). Brain disorders? Not really…Why network structures block reductionism in psychopathology research. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.

Epskamp, S., van Borkulo, C. D., van der Veen, D. C., Servaas, M. N., Isvoranu, A. M., Riese, H., & Cramer, A. O. J. (in press). Personalized Network Modeling in Psychopathology: The Importance of Contemporaneous and Temporal Connections. Clinical Psychological Science.

Kossakowski, J., & Cramer, A. O. J. (in press). Complex dynamical systems in psychology. To appear in: Network Science in Cognitive Psychology.

van Bork, R., van Borkulo, C. D., Waldorp, L. J., Cramer, A. O. J., & Borsboom, D. (in press). Network models for clinical psychology. To appear in: Stevens’ Handbook.


Borsboom, D., Fried, E. I., Epskamp, S., Waldorp, L. J., van Borkulo, C. D., van der Maas, H. L. J., & Cramer, A. O. J. (2017). False alarm? A comprehensive reanalysis of “Evidence that psychopathology symptom networks have limited replicability” by Forbes, Wright, Markon, and Krueger (2017). Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126, 989-999.

Cramer, A. O. J., & van Bork, R. (2017). Internal validity. SAGE Encyclopedia of Abnormal and Clinical Psychology.

Fried, E. I., & Cramer, A. O. J. (2017). Moving forward: challenges and directions for psychopathological network theory and methodology. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12, 999-1020.

Fried, E. I., van Borkulo, C. D., Cramer, A. O. J., Boschloo, L., Schoevers, R. A., & Borsboom, D. (2017). Mental disorders as networks of problems: a review of recent insights. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 52, 1-10.

Lunansky, G., Nuijten, M., Deserno, M., Cramer, A. O. J., & Borsboom, D. (in press). Een symptoom komt nooit alleen: Psychologische stoornissen als complexe netwerken [A symptom never comes alone: Psychological disorders as complex networks]. To appear in: Handboek Persoonlijkheidspathologie [Handbook of Personality Pathology].

van Bork, R., & Cramer, A. O. J. (2017). Sample selection. SAGE Encyclopedia of Abnormal and Clinical Psychology.

van Bork, R., & Cramer, A. O. J. (2017). Sample size. SAGE Encyclopedia of Abnormal and Clinical Psychology.


Borsboom, D., Rhemtulla, M., Cramer, A. O. J., van der Maas, H. L. J., Scheffer, M., & Dolan, C. V. (2016). Kinds versus continua: A review of psychometric approaches to uncover the structure of psychiatric constructsPsychological Medicine, 46, 1567-1579.

Cramer, A. O. J., van Borkulo, C. D., Giltay, E. J., van der Maas, H. L. J., Kendler, K. S., Scheffer, M., & Borsboom, D. (2016). Major depression as a complex dynamic system. PLoS ONE, 11, e0167490.

Cramer, A. O. J., van Ravenzwaaij, D., Matzke, D., Steingroever, H., Wetzels, R., Grasman, R. P. P. P., Waldorp, L. J., & Wagenmakers, E. -J. (2016). Hidden multiplicity in exploratory multiway ANOVA: Prevalence and remediesPsychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23, 640-647.

Nuijten, M. B., Deserno, M. K., Cramer, A. O. J., & Borsboom, D. (2016). Mental disorders as complex networks: An introduction and overview of a network approach to psychopathology. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 13, 68-76.

Olde Rikkert, M. G., Dakos, V., Buchman, T. G., de Boer, R., Glass, L., Cramer, A. O. J., Levin, S., van Nes, E., Sugihara, G., Ferrari, M. D., Tolner, E. A., van de Leemput, I., Lagro, J., Melis, R., & Scheffer, M. (2016). Slowing Down of Recovery as Generic Risk Marker for Acute Severity Transitions in Chronic DiseasesCritical Care Medicine, 44, 601-606.

Wichers, M., Groot, P. C., Psychosystems, ESM Group, & EWS Group. (2016). Critical Slowing Down as a Personalized Early Warning Signal for DepressionPsychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 85, 114-116.

*These authors share first-authorship.


Costantini, G., Epskamp, S., Borsboom, D., Perugini, M., Mottus, R., Waldorp, L. J., & Cramer, A. O. J. (2015). State of the aRt personality research: A tutorial on network analysis of personality data in RJournal of Research in Personality, 54, 13-29.

Cramer, A. O. J., & Borsboom, D. (2015). Problems attract problems: A network perspective on mental disordersEmerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: An Interdisciplinary, Searchable, and Linkable Resource.

de Schryver, M., Vindevogel, S., Rasmussen, A., & Cramer, A. O. J. (2015). Unpacking Constructs: A Network Approach for Studying War Exposure, Daily Stressors and Post-Traumatic Stress DisorderFrontiers in Psychology, 6, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01896.

Fried, E. I., Bockting, C., Arjadi, R., Borsboom, D., Tuerlinckx, F., Cramer, A. O. J., Epskamp, S., Amshoff, M., Carr, D., & Stroebe, M. (2015). From Loss to Loneliness: The Relationship between Bereavement and Depressive SymptomsJournal of Abnormal Psychology, 124, 256-265.

Fried, E., van der Sluis, S., Cramer, A. O. J. (2015). The genetics of major depression remain elusive. DOI 10.13140/RG.2.1.3480.4963.

Key publications

Borsboom, D., & Cramer, A. O. J. (2013). Network analysis: An integrative approach to the structure of psychopathologyAnnual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9, 91-121.

Cramer, A. O. J., Borsboom, D., Aggen, S. H., & Kendler, K. S. (2012). The pathoplasticity of dysphoric episodes: differential impact of stressful life events on the patterns of depressive symptom inter-correlationsPsychological Medicine, 42, 957-965.

Cramer, A. O. J., van der Sluis, S., Noordhof, A., Wichers, M., Geschwind, N., Aggen, S. H., Kendler, K. S., & Borsboom, D. (2012). Dimensions of normal personality as networks in search of equilibrium: You can’t like parties if you don’t like peopleEuropean Journal of Personality, 26, 414-431.

Cramer, A. O. J., van der Sluis, S., Noordhof, A., Wichers, M., Geschwind, N., Aggen, S. H., Kendler, K. S., & Borsboom, D. (2012). Measurable like temperature or mereological like flocking? On the nature of personality traitsEuropean Journal of Personality, 26, 451-459.

Cramer, A. O. J., Waldorp, L. J., van der Maas, H. L. J., & Borsboom, D. (2010). Comorbidity: A network perspectiveBehavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 137-150.

Cramer, A. O. J., Waldorp, L. J., van der Maas, H. L. J., & Borsboom, D. (2010). Authors’ response. Complex realities require complex theories: Refining and extending the network approach to mental disordersBehavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 178-193.

van de Leemput, I. A., Wichers, M., Cramer, A. O. J., Borsboom, D., Tuerlinckx, F., Kuppens, P., van Nes, E. H., Viechtbauer, W., Giltay, E. J., Aggen, S. H., Derom C., Jacobs, N., Kendler, K. S., van der Maas, H. L. J., Neale, M. C., Peeters, F., Thiery, E., Zachar, P., & Scheffer, M. (2014). Critical slowing down as an early warning for the onset and termination of depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111, 87-92.

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